J. Peter Young shared an interesting perspective about how fungi “hook up”. Mixed cultures of mycorrhizal fungi connect with each other through low-frequency interactions called anastomosis (fusion between branches of the same or different hyphae), where hyphae meet and cytoplasmic sharing happens. Spores from these mixed cultures produce mycelia (a network of hyphae) with genes from both parental fungi. The mixed culture of mycelia behave like a network repair mechanism. This idea of recombination has deep evolutionary roots related to symbiogenesis, or the emergence novel species via symbiosis. In mycorrhizae, distinct nuclei co-exist in the cytoplasm of the fused hyphae (heterokaryon). Unproven is whether the genetic diversity of nuclei persist to form a subpopulation of nuclear material with evolutionary implications, as Croll suggests.